Teaching Young Children and Adult Beginners

Every time I hear someone say something along the lines of “I don’t know ballet enough to teach advanced ballet, but I can teach beginners/children” it makes me cringe so much that I can find it very difficult to conceal it.

I have been teaching a while now and I have taught from very young children to adult, from complete beginners to professionals. The classes I find most demanding and satisfying at the same time are the ones for those who are just starting ballet for the very first time, regardless of the age. The new pupils know very little about ballet. This, however, does not mean that the teacher can get away with knowing little. The teacher has to have a very sound and extensive knowledge in technique and history of ballet, of actual ballet repertoires, anatomy, injury prevention, different methods and how they differ from one another, and the ability to see and offer different advice and corrections depending on the individual pupil.

YKBG Class ©YKBG

YKBG Class
©YKBG

New pupils often have many questions about all sorts of things related to ballet. Many often come and ask what to do when they have stiff muscles or when something does not feel quite right from different physical activities they might do. It is imperative that the teacher can offer appropriate advice in order that they can work pain free and injury free, and maximise the speed of their improvements.

Many of my dancers who have been to other dance schools as adults (especially beginners and those with fairly little experience) told me that their former teachers hardly ever corrected them in adult classes and generally left them alone. They often find it astounding that I would touch their legs or arms to teach them the correct positions. I am yet to come across someone who does not improve even if they started ballet for the first time as an adult or are already fairly mature, and I simply cannot understand why some teachers do not bother teaching them properly.

I have also seen and heard so many dance schools, and not just in this country, letting young and inexperienced teachers or teaching assistants teach young children’s classes. The time when they are just starting out to learn ballet is the most important for child students and this is when they are at their most impressionable. Poor and ill-informed teaching at this stage might well be destroying the development of potential future ballet dancers. I see plenty of students who learned ballet at a young age carrying their old habits ten or twenty years later and finding it extremely difficult to break them.

It saddens me to hear stories like this.  Of course, there are many many fantastic teachers and dance schools where they teach everyone everything they can, where pupils are inspired and encouraged to continuously improve, and where very strong bonds between teachers and pupils are forged. If you are planning on starting learning ballet, or sending your children to learn ballet,  make sure you shop around and find a conscientious, knowledgeable and experienced teacher.

When It Comes To Pointe Shoes, Be Pedantic!

Internet shopping has no doubt made our lives so much easier and given us far wider varieties of choices. There are certain things, however, one should not purchase online.

When it comes to shoes, it is very difficult indeed to know whether they are comfortable or fit well. Shoes, even different pairs of the same design, are all differently cut and sewn so that it is very difficult to know how they will feel. They might rub in the wrong places, they might not be quite the right shape.

Pointe shoes are not something one should buy without trying them on with the help of someone with proper knowledge. Pointe shoes should fit like gloves. Ones toes are not supposed to be able to move around inside but at the same time they must not be overlapping. When one stands in the first position, there should not be any space above the toes either. The back of the shoes should be properly aligned with one’s feet. Even when all these criteria appear to be met when standing flat on the soles of one’s feet, things can and do change when one goes on pointe (stands on the tip of their toes). One’s feet often slip inside when the fitting isn’t precisely right. Because different makers’ shoes change in different ways as they are broken in, one has to have danced in them before becoming certain they are the right pair indeed.

This article is not to instruct people about how to fit pointe shoes themselves. This is to raise awareness as to how important it is to have well fitted pointe shoes both for the sake of technical improvement and the health of one’s feet. If the pointe shoes do not fit well, it is not simply a case of one’s feet sliding around inside and producing blisters; there is the potential to cause structural damage to one’s feet, ankles, knees, hips, back, spine… the whole body.

It is appalling to see how many dancers can go to even the large and well-known ballet shops and come back with ill-fitted pointe shoes. The fitters employed by these shops tend to follow a given a set of instructions but if they have not themselves danced on pointe properly before, and not tried at least a few different shoes from the major makes, it is very difficult for them to make a sound judgement. Different pointe shoe makers can produce shoes with noticeably different characteristics and fits. The shops have to accept the fact that the pointe shoes they carry, no matter how good they might be for many, may not be suitable for certain feet types. They also ought to have enough knowledge in order to advise when the dancers are not quite strong enough for pointe work and recognise if they are not standing straight.

Do not plump for an “easy” option when it comes to pointe shoes. Make sure you find someone who knows, really knows pointe shoes and pointe work. Try on a few pairs from different makes. It is, after all, for your own good. Many dancers are amazed at not only how much less pain they are in when the pointe shoes fit properly but how dramatically their technique improves.

Related reading: “How to Choose Well-Fitted Poite Shoes”

https://kodamaballet.wordpress.com/2013/09/11/how-to-choose-well-fitted-pointe-shoes/

Lovely pointe work by Vaganova Academy's pupils.

Lovely pointe work by Vaganova Academy’s pupils.

Maya Plisetskaya, One of the Greatest Ballerina Dies at Age 89

Splisetskaya dancing Dying SwanMaya Plisetskaya, my idol and inspiration, died of a heart attack on 2nd May, 2015 at her home in Munich, Germany.

She was born in 1925 in Moscow and trained at the Bolshoi Academy, joined the Bolshoi Ballet and quickly climbed the ladder to the rank of a principal dancer.

This article is not dedicated to talking about the details of her life though. There is an interesting obituary by Sophia Kishokovsky on NY Times that gives a good overview of her life and career: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/03/arts/dance/maya-plisetskaya-ballerina-who-embodied-bolshoi-dies-at-89.html?smprod=nytcore-iphone&smid=nytcore-iphone-share&_r=0

Plisetskaya was one of the first dancers I have ever seen, and certainly had the greatest impact on my life. Through her I learned that technique should be merely a means of expression rather than the goal, and so many other things besides.

A while ago I wrote an article about Plisetskaya and how meeting her affected my life. Please click on the link to read it.

https://kodamaballet.wordpress.com/2012/10/18/maya-plisetskaya/

“May she rest in peace” somehow does not suit her. She will keep on dancing forever in my heart and in that of many others.

Review by David Bellan for Yuka Kodama Ballet Group Annual Show 2013

David Bellan, the dance critic for the Oxford Times gave his permission to publish what he wrote for the Oxford Times on our page.

This is about the Yuka Kodama Ballet Group annual show in 2013. We put on our own version of La Fille Mal Gardee and a short suite Shared Dream, which music was composed specially for the group.

 

YUKA KODAMA BALLET GROUP         WYCHWOOD SCHOOL

 

31.05.13             Review by David Bellan

 

 

This is a highly trained amateur group who put on a show that was a pleasure to watch. They’re based in Oxford, and trained by Yuka Kodama-Pomfret, a former Japanese dancer who has appeared in all the big classics, but has long been based in the UK.

The first work of the evening, “Shared Dreams” is a new piece by Kodama, set to a specially commissioned piano suite by Hiroaki Tokunaga. The music is at times percussive, at times quite light-hearted, and proved a good introduction to the varying talents of the company.

Shared Dreams Photography by Susan Taylor

Shared Dreams
Photography by Susan Taylor

Shared Dreams Photographs by Susan Taylor

Shared Dreams
Photographs by Susan Taylor

Shared Dreams Photographs by Susan Taylor

Shared Dreams
Photographs by Susan Taylor

 

 

 

 

 

 

La Fille Mal Gardee Photographs by Susan Taylor

La Fille Mal Gardee
Photographs by Susan Taylor

“La Fille Mal Gardee”, best known in this country for the famed Ashton version with it’s popular clog dance, was a hit. Kodama tells a sunny story of love and frustration among country folk. Lison loves Colin, but her mother wants her to marry Jean, a rich miller’s son . Jade Shelton makes a lovely Lison, dancing well and putting her feelings over clearly in a performance of comedy and charm. She was partnered by Charlie Byers who last year was so unexpectedly impressive in “Le Corsaire,” after only two years of dance training. Byers had damaged his foot, but bravely came on as a warm and likeable Colin, but without his planned big solos. Kevin Stead

La Fille Mal Gardee Photographs by Susan Taylor

La Fille Mal Gardee
Photographs by Susan Taylor

had never danced until last January, but gave a remarkably assured and amusing performance in drag as Madame Rigotte, Lison’s mother. David Hanvidge danced the dim but likeable Jean with a mixture of misplaced self-confidence and a lot of physical comedy, as he tottered about intending to show off his

La Fille Mal Gardee Photographs by Susan Taylor

La Fille Mal Gardee
Photographs by Susan Taylor

dancing. A nice touch in Kodama’s version is that, after losing Lison to Colin, Jean gets a girl of his own. Tiny Isona Kakuchi sparkled while playing a boy, Jean’s little brother Firmin, egging Jean on to success, but also concerned that he will mess it up. Young though he is, Firmin is a cool hand at chatting up the girls, including Dona-Maria Sandu, who produced some classy solos throughout the evening.

 

 

La Fille Mal Gardee Photographs by Susan Taylor

La Fille Mal Gardee
Photographs by Susan Taylor

La Fille Mal Gardee Photographs by Susan Taylor

La Fille Mal Gardee
Photographs by Susan Taylor

La Fille Mal Gardee Photographs by Susan Taylor

La Fille Mal Gardee
Photographs by Susan Taylor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Feet Positions in Ballet

Pierre Beauchamp

Pierre Beauchamp

The five positions of feet in classical ballet were first codified by a French choreographer and dancer Pierre Beauchamp (1631-1705) and still form the basis of the classical ballet technique.

It is very important to achieve these positions with one’s legs and body properly aligned. If they are not, the risk of injuries will increase, improvement of technique can be slowed down and muscles will develop unnecessarily in the wrong places.

There is a very good and simple exercise one can do in order to check the alignment and, at the same time, strengthen the legs. Stand with your feet in parallel* with a tennis ball between the ankles (the ball should be placed just above the ankle bones – the feet do not have to touch each other), and try to squeeze the tennis ball by standing tall and using the inner thigh muscles (particularly the gracilis). The tennis ball should be firmly held by your legs. Ask someone to try and take the ball out. If this is difficult (it is not really impossible…), you are likely to be using the correct muscles and your knees and toes are aligned. Your knees should be straight above your toes. Next, do a plié and check that the tennis ball is still firmly held. Then go up onto your tiptoes and see if the tennis ball is still strongly held. Repeat this several times. By continuing this exercise daily, you can train your legs to be aligned and strengthen the inner thigh muscles.

Make sure you do not lose the squeezing feeling while you are doing the exercise.

Make sure you do not lose the squeezing feeling while you are doing the exercise. ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

Using correct muscles to stand upright and straight without any twist in the legs (L), and standing with legs pushed out while the knees turning inwards and feet rolling out. This can cause injuries. (R)

Using correct muscles to stand upright and straight without any twist in the legs (L); and standing with legs pushed out while the knees are turning inwards and feet rolling out. This can cause injuries. (R) ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

Once you know how to align your legs, stand with feet parallel to start with, and then lift your feet off the floor onto your heels without bending your knees at all. Pivot your legs on your heels so your toes swivel outwards to the side, without loosening your knees and keeping your body upright. Put your feet down and you are in the first position. You should always turn out your legs from the hips. Some people feel their legs are turned out when the toes are pulled to the sides, but this very often results in twists in ankles and knees, that lead to injuries and overly developed muscles in unnecessary places.

First position. Make sure the knees are aligned above the toes. ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

First position. ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

A very good way to check if your knees are aligned above your toes: Whatever the position you are in, curl your toes upwards as much as you can without lifting the balls of your feet. If you can do this without any strain to your feet joints, your knees are  properly aligned above your toes. You should feel three pressure points on your feet. In the middle of your heel, one between the first and second toes and one between the fourth and fifth toes.

From the first position, slide one leg out, keeping the balance on the supporting leg and gradually stretching the moving foot (if you are at the barre, the outside foot) to the side, being careful to keep the toes on the floor, then shifting the balance gradually into the middle as you lower your heel. This is the second position. The distance between the heels should be about the length of your own foot. You can achieve a beautifully positioned second position by standing with one foot in front of the other, swivelling the back foot on the heel and then putting the foot down into second position.

How to get into second position. ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

How to get into second position. ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

How to check the distance between heels in second position ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

How to check the distance between heels in second position ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

Third position ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

Third position ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

Stretch the outside leg, lifting from the heel, shifting the balance back onto the inside leg, slide the foot toward the supporting leg, closing it just in front, with the heel of the outside foot in front of the arch of the other foot. This is the third position. Although some teachers encourage use of this position when a dancer finds it a little difficult to close into a tight fifth position, I find this can encourage the dancers to be a little lazy when they are supposed to be in the fifth position, and therefore I do not use this very often in my classes.

To reach the fourth position from the third or fifth position, slide and stretch out the front foot forward, pushing the heel forward rather than the toes and, after completing the stretch, bring your toes back a little (turning the leg and feet out all the time) and put the foot down on the floor in a position parallel to the supporting leg. The distance between the two feet should be a little shorter than the length of your own foot. To check this, put the front foot in 90° angle to the supporting foot, heel to heel. Pivot the front foot on the ball, pushing the heel forward, and lower the heel down.

How to check the distance between feet in fourth position ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

How to check the distance between feet in fourth position ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

Fourth position ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

Fourth position ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

To reach the fourth position when coming from the second position, first stretch the outside foot without lifting the toes off the floor, shifting the balance onto the other leg. Move your outside leg from your side to front, as if to draw the arc of a quarter of a circle. Make sure you keep your leg turned out. When your working leg reaches the front, put down your heel in the way described above.

From the fourth position, stretch the foot forward and then slide it back towards the supporting leg, led by the toes, making sure your leg stays turned out, until the front foot is touching the back foot, toes to heels into the fifth position.

Closing into fifth position ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

Closing into fifth position ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

If you are coming from the second position, you could either do the same quarter circular move as into the fourth position and then close straight into the fifth position or, after stretching the outside leg, slide back straight from the side into the fifth position.

If you do not have enough turn-out in your legs and/or flexibility yet, it is difficult to achieve a 180° turn-out in the first and second positions, or parallel lines in the third, fourth or fifth positions. I usually advise my dancers to have slightly less turn-out in order to keep the knees and toes aligned and perhaps the legs very slightly less crossed, but encourage them to keep striving to go further every day.

If you search for “feet positions in ballet” online, there is one source that says Serge Lifar (1905-1986) reintroduced two positions in the 1930’s and they are limited to Lifar’s choreography. Whereas it is likely that he reintroduced them and codified them as the sixth and the seventh positions, both positions are and have been used in many examples of choreography, including classical repertoires such as that of Marius Petipa, aside from Lifar’s own.

Sixth position en pointe ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

Sixth position en pointe ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

The sixth position is widely used. It is a position I discussed at the start: parallel feet. Many methods call this sixth position even if they are not down the Paris Opera line.

The seventh position is also widely used, but as far as I know, it is usually not called so. It is a position, essentially a fourth position in relevé with heels aligned. This position is usually called fourth position on (demi)pointe.

Fourth position en pointe, or the seventh position by Serge LIfar ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

Fourth position en pointe, or the seventh position by Serge LIfar ©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

Whatever the position you stand in, do not forget to get your legs turned out from the hips, align your knees above your toes, and hold your head high; beautiful dancing is something to be proud of, after all!

How to Sew Ribbons on Your Pointe Shoes – Appendix

This is an appendix to the article that was published before on How to Sew Ribbons on Your Pointe Shoes, answering a question from a reader. (https://kodamaballet.wordpress.com/2013/09/11/how-to-sew-ribbons-on-your-pointe-shoes/)

This article explains a little further on the following:

“An alternative is to sew a very short loop of elastic just long enough to reach from the heel seam of the shoes to the back of the ankle (behind the Achilles tendon) and thread the ribbon through it as you wrap it around your ankles. The heels are pulled up by the ribbons around your ankles and you do not have to risk the discomfort of having elastic around your ankle as well as the ribbons.”

©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

As in the photograph on the right, sew a piece of elastic (use a fairly strong piece of elastic for this), which is twice the length from the edge of the heel of your pointe shoes to the back of your ankle, in a loop. One could either sew two ends together or sew them very closely next to each other.

©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

Through this small loop of elastic, thread the first ribbon (always wrap the inside ribbon first. This helps keep the pointe shoes stay with your feet) and wrap it around your ankle. It is not necessary to thread the other ribbon. Just wrap the ribbons around your ankle as usual and tie them, and off you go dancing.

©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

I have been using this method for a while. It was nice not to have both ribbons and elastic around my ankles. After that, I found such well fitted shoes that did not need any elastic to keep the shoes on my heels. So the elastic was made redundant.

©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

©Yuka Kodama Ballet Group

Spartacus – Bolshoi Ballet in Cinema

20th October 2013, via live feed to the cinema from the Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow.

Vladimir Vasiliev

Vladimir Vasiliev

Vladimir Vasiliev, the former principal of the Bolshoi Ballet and the creator of the role of Spartacus when this Grigorovich ballet premiered in 1968, was interviewed during one of the intervals.   Vasiliev was and still is my hero.  Even at the age of 73, standing on a corner of the historic stage of the Bolshoi Theatre being interviewed, Vasiliev commanded the attention of the audience, captivating them with his charisma.  He talked with excitement, as though it was only yesterday, of being the character and said that he lived the life of Spartacus whenever he danced the role on stage.  His Spartacus was so passionate and tragic and so extremely powerful.

Vladimir Vasiliev and Maris Liepa

Vladimir Vasiliev and Maris Liepa

Tonight’s male leads, Mikhail Lobukhin and Vladislav Lantratov did exactly what Vasiliev spoke of; they lived the lives of Spartacus and Crassus for the three hours they were on the stage. Lobukhin and Lantratov were very different from Vladimir Vasiliev and Maris Liepa, who were in the premiere cast of this iconic piece and remain my favourite Spartacus and Crassus, yet they managed to create their own Spartacus and Crassus whilst staying very faithful to the original intention: Spartacus so passionate and energetic and Crassus powerful, noble, arrogant yet charismatic. I was rather glad that neither Lobukhin nor Lantratov appeared to be trying to emulate anyone else’s portrayal of Spartacus or Crassus.

The fact that there are so many wonderful forerunners from which they can and do learn is a priceless asset for the dancers in the Bolshoi company. I have long wondered, however, seeing just how many of its former stars are coaching at the Bolshoi Ballet, whether or not this flow of experience might actually restrict new personalities from emerging. Being coached by such charismatic and talented former dancers, on the one hand, is an opportunity any dancer would do anything to get, but could younger dancers resist copying the great dancers of the former generations? It does seem though, that as well as having been fantastic and charismatic performers, they are influential but inspirational guides who are keen to let the younger dancers explore their own paths and discover their own roles.

Mikhail Lobukhin as Spartacus with Marianna Ryzhkina

Mikhail Lobukhin as Spartacus with Marianna Ryzhkina

Lobukhin, who was trained at the Vaganova Academy, joined the Bolshoi Ballet three years ago. I had not been overly impressed with his Tybalt in Grigorovich’s Romeo and Juliet, and the only other role I have seen him perform was a young agricultural student in Alexei Ratmansky’s The Bright Stream. I was a little worried that I might be disappointed with him dancing Spartacus, but I shouldn’t have been. His Spartacus was passionate, loving and very moving. In certain ways he was more delicate than some other iconic Spartacus’ I have seen, but this added sensitivity did not diminish the powerfulness of the performance.

Vladislav Lantratov as Crassus and Svetlana Zakharova as Aegina

Vladislav Lantratov as Crassus and Svetlana Zakharova as Aegina

Vlad Lantratov was recently promoted to the rank of principal dancer and he lived up to his title very well. Having so far seen him mainly in more gentle and sincere types of role, I was pleasantly surprised that he managed so convincingly to grasp the somewhat manic and arrogant atmosphere of Crassus.

The two male leads have very clear-cut technique and beautiful control, which they both used in order to convey their characters and their emotions. Technique in itself was not the goal for either of them.

Svetlana Zakharova as Aegina Photo by Marc Haegemen

Svetlana Zakharova as Aegina
Photo by Marc Haegemen

The same thing could be said about Svetlana Zakharova, who danced the role of Aegina. She was glamorous, confident and beautifully provocative. She also appeared to be enjoying herself. I liked her more in this role than many others I have seen her dance so far; it seems to have freed her in some way that much of the classical repertoire does not seem to.

Whereas those three dancers seemed to move from their hearts and it was the emotion they conveyed that I felt before thinking about their technique, Anna Nikulina disappointed me in the role of Phrygia, Spartacus’ wife. She looked as though she was just going over a well rehearsed set of movements without knowing why she was doing what she did. This was very unfortunate as the concluding scene of the ballet is Phrygia’s lament over her husband’s death. It used to reduce me to tears when I watched Ekaterina Maximova or Ludmila Semenyaka perform this scene. This time, not only did Nikulina not bring tears to my eyes, she made me miss all the other wonderful dancers who have danced this role.

Ekaterina Maximova as Phrygia

Ekaterina Maximova as Phrygia

Grigorovich’s choreography along with Aram Khachaturian’s music makes it impossible not to be swept up in the emotion of this ballet. The dancers, from the leads to the corps de ballet, all seem to have felt it today.  As a whole, it was a fantastic production that showed off what the Bolshoi Ballet is all about. Phrygia is a difficult role. Of the four leads she has the most subtle character, but it can be easier to dance a stronger character. Nikulina still may develop into a mature dancer who can do justice to the part of Phrygia.

There was one small change to the choreography as I remembered it; for me this small change made a rather big difference to the experience. A masked Spartacus is dragged out in front of Crassus and his party to fight a fellow gladiator. After a very tense few minutes, the opponent gladiator (wonderfully danced by Denis Savin, whom I would love to see more of as he is a very dramatic and able dancer) is stabbed and dies. In the older productions (as far as I know), when Spartacus removes the opponent’s mask, his eyes are wide open and Spartacus very tenderly closes them. In tonight’s production, his eyes were already closed, although I must admit Savin looked very vulnerable. I always assumed that Spartacus knew this other gladiator personally and that this is the moment he seems to make the decision of rebelling against Crassus and what he embodies: the Roman Empire.